Dangerous Liaisons , subtitled Letters collected in a society and published for the instruction of some others , is an epistolary novel written by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos and published in 1782 .
This major literary work of the xviii th century , which tells the evil duo of two noble manipulators, rakes and libertines of the Enlightenment , is considered a masterpiece of French literature, although it fell in a quasi -oubli during most of the xix th century before being rediscovered in the early xx th . Novel inscribed in the tradition of libertinism of morals illustrated by Crebillon son , novel of psychological analysis in the line of the New Heloise ofJean-Jacques Rousseau , he brings to a degree of perfection the epistolary form: no element is gratuitous, each letter writer has his style and the polyphony of crossed correspondences constructs a drama in four stages with a morally ambiguous conclusion 1 , which continues to fascinate the reader and to encourage many adaptations.
The Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont play with the prudish and privileged society in which they live. Delivering themselves to debauchery, throughout the book they continue to narrate their exploits through the letters they send each other (because they do not talk to each other openly) and which constitute the body of the plot. But for rivals, they are not equal. The viscount of Valmont is a man and, as such, he can be a flamboyant libertine in broad daylight and without restraint. The letters he writes to the Marquise de Merteuil are only the triumphant account of his adventures.
It is not the same for the latter. If she must compete with the Viscount on the ground of the adventures of alcove, the Marquise de Merteuil, moreover, is forced to dissimulation. Her social status (she is Marquise), marital (she is widowed) and her sex (she is a woman in a world dominated by men) compel her to duplicity and deception. If the Viscount also uses these weapons, it is only to seduce and then to lose, by dishonoring them, the women of whom he conquers. He only takes an easy path that only transgresses the morality of his time.
To be his equal, the Marquise de Merteuil must, in addition, manage to get out of the role that is devolved to him. She declared war on men and, wanting to be “born to avenge [her] sex” ( letter LXXXI [ archive ] ), she uses all her intelligence to maintain her independence, her lovers and her reputation 2. The whole strength of the novel lies in the double narrative of these two interwoven intrigues. The story of their respective libertine adventures, their strategies and their adventures but also the fight they are fighting against each other. A fight that first appears as a game of seduction and then becomes a destructive rivalry. Ultimately, the two fighters will take each other what they have most valuable. Viscount die duel after succumbing to love M me of Tourvel, whose loss he has caused. The brilliant libertine will agonize in love desperate to have destroyed the one he loved. The Marquise de Merteuil will lose her reputation, that all her life she had endeavored to preserve, her fortune, by losing a lawsuit and her femininity that a small pox will wither disfiguring her.
Interactions between main characters
The characters are divided into two groups: the libertines and their victims, although some characters can be classified elsewhere in the category of victims (The Danceny knight will become to some extent a libertine thereafter, and M me Rosamond who is more of a spectator).
The absence of main narrator makes the reader gradually build his opinion on each character, since he has all the letters at his disposal. He can measure the naivety of the victims, the duplicity and the cynicism of the libertines, and savor the irony of the situations 3 .
The game leaders
The game leaders are those libertines whose only goal is to seduce and come to an end with the women they meet. In a word: to collect conquests. But libertines also enjoy the company of young girls.
The Marquise de Merteuil
The Marquise de Merteuil is an accomplished libertine, who has spent her life playing with men while preserving her honor under appearances of virtue. She decides, in order to avenge herself on Gercourt, to make Cecile de Volanges , her pupil just out of the convent, an easy woman, giving her a libertine education. Throughout the letters, the reader discovers a complex character who decided to “avenge his sex”. Her love affairs then become conquests that she disposes of as she pleases. Married young and widowed very quickly, she enjoys a large fortune. In the past, she was the lover of Valmontand we learn that she was the only woman able to stand up to him. At the beginning of the novel, she maintains an affair with a knight (Belleroche), but after having ridiculed the famous Prevan, she finds a way to get rid of it to devote herself to Danceny. Her art of dissimulation allows her to be perceived as a virtuous woman and she becomes the confidante of her own victims, as illustrated by the example of Cécile de Volanges. She even manages to manipulate Valmont by finding the words to convince him to break with the only woman he has ever loved, the president of Tourvel. The character of Merteuil is really fascinating because mysterious and unique. Regardless of the reader’s opinion of his actions, he can only to admire the stratagems put in place by the young woman to live the life she aspires to in a suffocating patriarchal society. The women of her time had no right to study science, philosophy … because they were not worthy,M me de Merteuil says in the letter 81 his thirst for knowledge, the need to learn and know. In an environment where a woman is only a reflection of her husband, she has become a machine, impassive and cold on the surface to be able to exist a little. His relationship with Viscount Valmont is the perfect example and the flaw at the same time. He has a reputation as an inveterate seducer, and she says she wanted to, as soon as she heard about him, as a challenge.
Throughout the novel, by several sentences, we feel a real depth between the two main characters. The very fact of writing is one. The Marquise de Merteuil carefully hides all the proofs of her licentiousness, and yet relates her exploits in the minutest details to her ally and friend. It is also the transmission of letters by Valmont Danceny during his death that will cause the loss of the Marquise. The two libertines are in a constant overbid. They want to dominate the other, Merteuil because Valmont is a recognized and acknowledged libertine, Valmont, because Merteuil is the only woman he has ever managed to bend. At the peak of their art, confrontation is inevitable. War is declared between the two, Merteuil refuses Valmont who sees it as a trophy and will end with their loss. Valmont, recognized libertine, dies physically, Merteuil, model of virtue, dies socially.
The end of the novel is enigmatic, because none of the characters see it again. “They say she,” “They say that” … But no one can confirm the rumors. So there is an even bigger mystery around her and she almost becomes a myth. “It is said that she” was disfigured by the smallpox , “It is said that” fled to Holland. Now, at that time, Holland is the country of witches and tales … She becomes almost a legendary character.
The viscount of Valmont
Le vicomte de Valmont agit sournoisement et met en place toute une stratégie pour séduire la présidente de Tourvel : on le découvre vite rusé, mais surtout très doué. Ses relations avec la marquise de Merteuil ne sont pas très explicites, chacun cherchant perpétuellement à impressionner l’autre pour se rendre plus désirable : ils étaient autrefois amants et, bien que désirant voler le cœur de la présidente, il se montre toujours autant épris de la marquise.
Quant à elle, elle explique son désir de vengeance envers Gercourt, et c’est pourquoi elle essaie d’engager le vicomte à séduire Cécile : mais, trop intéressé par la présidente, il décline l’offre.
They then come to a pact: if he succeeds in winning over the president of Tourvel, he will be able to possess the marchioness who always resists him. His love being rejected, he tries again to turn the situation around and conceives as a proof of love the fact that she still authorizes him to write to him against his departure. He discovers that M me of Volanges slandered his account to the President and therefore to avenge it, he accepts the old mission entrusted to him the Marquise he went to Paris to seduce his daughter, ready to to seduce Cecile. After all his zeal contributed to the libertine formation of the “pupil” of M mede Merteuil, he is instructed by the Marquise to “seize” Danceny as she seized Cecile, then will be charged by the same person to relay his role as matchmaker between Cecile and Knight Danceny after the Cecile’s mother knew of the relationship uniting her daughter to the knight. After the miscarriage of Cécile, following his relationship with the Viscount, it continues to irritate the marchioness with his stories and especially his unconscious love for the President.
The interpretations on this character diverge. Some say he killed himself for betraying M me de Tourvel, others lean more for another thesis. The Viscount Valmont remains a libertine and it would be too simple to believe that a simple connection can bring him back on “the right way”. The Marquise de Merteuil and he engage in a fight to the death in the last part of the work. But his death is the loss of his opponent. He died in depriving it of its reputation, vital thing for a woman of the xviii th century. The very fact that he gives to Chevalier Danceny the entirety of Merteuil’s letters suggests that his gesture was carefully considered. It is by allowing himself to be killed that he wins their battle.
The president of Tourvel
The president of Tourvel is a young 22-year-old woman who appears to readers as a virtuous woman and fulfilled in her relationship. However, throughout the work, some of her actions tend to show that she is a character in its own right, with its qualities and flaws. She who advocates honesty and virtue is still tracking the Viscount Valmont … Later, hearing the declaration of love of it, she ignores the Viscount and refuses first to receive letters from him. However, she accepts that he will write to him when he is gone (later, when the Viscount searches his home, he will find tears on his letters). She begs him, however, to leave. She may say, “This is my last letter,” she keeps writing to him. She also says “I must be happy” (she talks about her husband), we do not feel insensitive to the viscount but she tries to protect herself. Follows a series of letters in which she begs him to stop writing to her, to forget her, etc. One evening, however, she gives in, admits her love, but runs away. However, learning the so-called bad state of health of the Viscount, she is worried. She then succumbs to her love for Valmont and, totally oblivious to the moral demands she bore, will maintain an affair with him. The latter, to satisfy the wishes of the Marquise de Merteuil and to preserve its reputation, decided to leave the president of Tourvel. Desperate, Tourvel retired to a convent where she died while learning the tragic end of Valmont. it does not feel insensitive to the viscount but it tries to protect itself. Follows a series of letters in which she begs him to stop writing to her, to forget her, etc. One evening, however, she gives in, admits her love, but runs away. However, learning the so-called bad state of health of the Viscount, she is worried. She then succumbs to her love for Valmont and, totally oblivious to the moral demands she bore, will maintain an affair with him. The latter, to satisfy the wishes of the Marquise de Merteuil and to preserve its reputation, decided to leave the president of Tourvel. Desperate, Tourvel retired to a convent where she died while learning the tragic end of Valmont. it does not feel insensitive to the viscount but it tries to protect itself. Follows a series of letters in which she begs him to stop writing to her, to forget her, etc. One evening, however, she gives in, admits her love, but runs away. However, learning the so-called bad state of health of the Viscount, she is worried. She then succumbs to her love for Valmont and, totally oblivious to the moral demands she bore, will maintain an affair with him. The latter, to satisfy the wishes of the Marquise de Merteuil and to preserve its reputation, decided to leave the president of Tourvel. Desperate, Tourvel retired to a convent where she died while learning the tragic end of Valmont. Follows a series of letters in which she begs him to stop writing to her, to forget her, etc. One evening, however, she gives in, admits her love, but runs away. However, learning the so-called bad state of health of the Viscount, she is worried. She then succumbs to her love for Valmont and, totally oblivious to the moral demands she bore, will maintain an affair with him. The latter, to satisfy the wishes of the Marquise de Merteuil and to preserve its reputation, decided to leave the president of Tourvel. Desperate, Tourvel retired to a convent where she died while learning the tragic end of Valmont. Follows a series of letters in which she begs him to stop writing to her, to forget her, etc. One evening, however, she gives in, admits her love, but runs away. However, learning the so-called bad state of health of the Viscount, she is worried. She then succumbs to her love for Valmont and, totally oblivious to the moral demands she bore, will maintain an affair with him. The latter, to satisfy the wishes of the Marquise de Merteuil and to preserve its reputation, decided to leave the president of Tourvel. Desperate, Tourvel retired to a convent where she died while learning the tragic end of Valmont. However, learning the so-called bad state of health of the Viscount, she is worried. She then succumbs to her love for Valmont and, totally oblivious to the moral demands she bore, will maintain an affair with him. The latter, to satisfy the wishes of the Marquise de Merteuil and to preserve its reputation, decided to leave the president of Tourvel. Desperate, Tourvel retired to a convent where she died while learning the tragic end of Valmont. However, learning the so-called bad state of health of the Viscount, she is worried. She then succumbs to her love for Valmont and, totally oblivious to the moral demands she bore, will maintain an affair with him. The latter, to satisfy the wishes of the Marquise de Merteuil and to preserve its reputation, decided to leave the president of Tourvel. Desperate, Tourvel retired to a convent where she died while learning the tragic end of Valmont.
The president of Tourvel is a character torn between his puritanical convictions and his feelings for the viscount. His resistance throughout the novel shows the power of his ideas, but his passion is too strong, his love too violent and she falls into his arms, ready to give himself to him.
Cecile of Volanges
Leaving the convent at the age of 15 years to marry the Earl of Gercourt she does not even know she lives with her mother, M me of Volanges. She is bored and wrote to her friend remained at the convent of Sophie Carnay (forget it gradually as it will reserve its confidences M me de Merteuil). She loves the marchioness, the latter often coming to her home in the company of Knight Danceny whose Cecile falls quickly in love. On the advice of the Marquise, she confesses her love but she is in despair when she considers her future with the Count de Gercourt whose Marchioness has made him a horrible portrait: “[…] Sad and severe […] He is rich, he is a man of quality, he is a regimental colonel of … […] But first of all he is old: think he is at least thirty-six years old! ” (letter 39, Cécile Volanges to Sophie Carnay). The Marquise easily influences the girl. The young naïve, however, writes to Danceny to tell him that she has no choice, she must forget it though she can not do it. But again under the influence of the marchioness, she makes promises of love to her suitor. When her mother discovers this secret love, Cecilia will seek consolation from the Marquise, who is in reality the one who betrayed her without her knowing it. The viscount, with the help of the girl, obtains the key of his room so that he can play the intermediaries and transmit the letters she exchanges with Danceny. However,Valmont enters the girl’s house one night and forces her to sleep with him. She does not know what to do and refers to the Marquise, who, in her response, continues her manipulation and encourages her to think that she will benefit from her affair with Valmont without compromising his feelings for Danceny. She suggests that he reconcile with him and move him away from his mother to preserve her status as a privileged confidante. The Marquise later confesses to the Viscount that the next on his list is neither more nor less than Danceny.
In the end, Cecile miscarried and retired to the convent.
The knight Danceny
Horrified by the manipulation of which he was the victim, wanting to escape “a world which, so young still (he has) already had so much to complain about” 4 , he decides to take refuge in Malta, the mother-house of his order .
Madame de Rosemonde
The very official aunt of Viscount Valmont embodies the values of the old regime, marked by its pious character, both rigid and soft. It is under his own roof that his nephew commits perversion, especially by seducing the president of Tourvel, for whom she is a faithful confidante, but also by introducing Cécile de Volanges libertinism. She understands late that the president is actually attracted by Valmont, after it has revealed it in writing, and tries to bring it back to religion and loyalty. Nevertheless, when the president confesses to her adultery, she sympathizes with her pain, using her own experience to understand the young woman (would she have lived a similar story?). Being a friend of M me of Volanges, she invites him to her house without knowing that Valmont intends to manipulate and after “deflowering” his daughter, an unconscious trap that will close on the Volanges family and cause more and more libertine attitudes in the young girl. Later, while the president of Tourvel locked herself in the convent, she kept up a correspondence with supplied M me of Volanges to ascertain the state of her friend, she will follow until his death. After the death of her nephew, she plays a key role in collecting all the letters from the protagonists of the affair, and will ensure that her friends are protected from the scandal before returning to her devout life.
M me of Volanges has from the beginning of the novel, arranged the union of his daughter Cecilia with Count Gercourt. She has a friendly relationship with the Marquise de Merteuil which she wishes the presence at the wedding of Cecile, as well as with the President of Tourvel she warns against the Viscount Valmont, seducer and libertine quite harmful. Later, she will try to help him in his final disarray following his abandonment by the Viscount. When she learns the love between her daughter and Danceny through the Marquise de Merteuil, she opposes their relationship and asks Danceny to return her daughter’s letters. Faced with the apparent misfortunes of her daughter that she wrongly blames the knight while they are the work of Valmont’s vengeance, she questions the education she gives to her daughter and seeks advice from the Marquise , considered the benefactor of the Volanges. However, when M me de Merteuil is unmasked, it tries to mend the young lovers, ignoring almost everything business exposed through the novel.
Political and moral intentions in Dangerous Liaisons
Roger Vailland , with Laclos in a communist perspective, thought he saw in Dangerous Liaisons a weapon of war, prefiguring the rise of the bourgeoisie decided to shoot the privileged class of the aristocracy 5 . But this pretended political intention of Laclos did not strike any of his contemporaries. Only Alexandre de Tilly , in his memoirs written in 1828, long after the Revolution , sees in this novel “one of the revolutionary waves that fell into the ocean that submerged the court. ” In addition, we find in the novel no opposition between the virtuous commoners and aristocratscorrupt, nor any political allusion or claim social, not the least polemical emphasis against the regime 5 .
In reality, the novel is situated on a completely different level: there is no need to question the sincerity of Laclos’s intentions, inscribing an epigraph on the Liaisons , this phrase borrowed from La Nouvelle Héloïse :
“I have seen the mores of my time and I have published these letters. “
His intention as a moralist is clearly stated in the preface:
“It seems to me that it is a service to manners to reveal the means used by those who have bad to bribe those who have good. “
However, these moral intentions are singularly complex: there is an obvious connivance between Laclos and the worst of his characters. At the end of the xviii th century , triumphed the refinements of enjoyment and intellectual libertinism, and Laclos, a man of his time, can not help but to explore, with amused curiosity and ingenuity of an amateur, the Master strokes in the art of seducing and enjoying a being.
Under the corruptions of debauchery that conceals evil pride and boredom in Valmont and M me de Merteuil, Laclos has identified “the call to love in the gift and not the game, this hatred that the presence a pure woman lights the heart impure, and this bitter passion and desperate that she wakes up in the libertine 5 . ” It is in this poetry of love desert outbreak of the incomparable talent of Laclos.
- 1959 : Dangerous Liaisons 1960 film of Roger Vadim with Jeanne Moreau ( M me de Merteuil), Gérard Philipe (Valmont), Annette Vadim ( M me de Tourvel), Jeanne Valérie (Cecile Volange) and Jean-Louis Trintignant(Danceny)
- 1976 : A faithful woman , film by Roger Vadim with Jon Finch , Sylvia Kristel , Nathalie Delon
- 1988 : Les Liaisons Dangereuses ( Dangerous Liaisons ), film director Stephen Frears with Glenn Close ( M me de Merteuil), John Malkovich (Valmont), Michelle Pfeiffer ( M me de Tourvel), Uma Thurman (Cecile de Volanges) and Keanu Reeves ( Danceny)
- 1989 : Valmont , film Forman with Colin Firth (Valmont), Annette Bening ( M me de Merteuil), Meg Tilly ( M me de Tourvel), Fairuza Balk (Cecile de Volanges) and Henry Thomas (Danceny)
- 1999 : Sex Intentions ( Cruel Intentions ), Roger Kumble’s film , modernized transposition in Manhattan, with Ryan Phillippe (Sebastian Valmont), Sarah Michelle Gellar (Kathryn Merteuil), Reese Witherspoon (Annette Hargrove), Selma Blair (Cecile Caldwell) and Joshua Jackson (Blaine Tuttle)
- 2000 : Sex Intentions 2 ( Cruel Intentions 2 ), Roger Kumble’s film , modernized transposition in Manhattan before the first part, with Robin Dunne (Sebastian Valmont), Amy Adams (Kathryn Merteuil), Sarah Thompson(Danielle Sherman) and Keri Lynn Pratt (Cherie Claymon)
- 2003 : Untold Scandal , film by E J-yong . Transposition in a South Korean historical context, including Bae Yong-jun and Lee Mi-suk
- 2004 : Sex Intentions 3 ( Cruel Intentions 3 ), Scott Ziehl’s film , modernized transposition in Santa Barbara, with Kerr Smith (Jason Argyle) and Kristina Anapau (Cassidy Merteuil)
- 2012 : Dangerous Liaisons , Sino-Korean film by Jin-ho Hur where the plot of the novel is transposed in the Shanghai of the 1930s, with Zhang Ziyi , Dong-kun Jang and Cecilia Cheung
- 2018 : Great Seducer (Korean drama), South Korean drama including actors Woo Do Hwan, Joy (idol of South Korean group Red Velvet), Kim Min Jae Mun Ga Yeong.
- Manuel Puig , Boquitas pintadas (1969), Barcelona, Biblioteca de Bolsillo, Seix Barral, 1985 6 , 7 ; French edition: The most beautiful tango of the world , translation of Laure Guille-Battalion , Paris, Denoël, 1972
- Laurent de Graeve , The Bad Genre , Éditions du Rocher, 2000 8
- Sarah K. , Dangerous Connections , 2002
- Camille de Peretti , We are cruel , The Pocketbook, 2008
- 1980 : Dangerous Liaisons , TV movie directed by Charles Brabant , including Claude Degliame ( M me de Merteuil), Jean-Pierre Bouvier (Valmont) and Maia Simon ( M me de Tourvel)
- 1989 : Dangerous Liaisons , Parodic sketch of Dummies ( Canal + )
- 1991 : Liaisons dangerously dangerous , skit parody of the Unknown ( Antenna 2 )
- 1998 : Perro amor , Colombian telenovela produced by Channel One with Danna García , Julian Arango and Isabella Santodomingo
- 2003 : Dangerous Liaisons , television series directed by Josée Dayan , including Catherine Deneuve ( M me de Merteuil), Rupert Everett (Valmont), Nastassja Kinski ( M me de Tourvel) Cyrille Thouvenin , (Hugo / Ludovic) Darrieux and Leelee Sobieski
- 2016 – Ligações Perigosas , soap opera directed by Denise Saraceni and Vinicius Coimbra , including Patrícia Pillar (Isabel / ” M me de Merteuil”) Mello Selton (Valmont), Marjorie Estiano (Mariana / ” M me de Tourvel”) and Alice Wegmann (Cecília) 9 – -Cruel Intentions , a modernized transposition following the Sex Intentions trilogy , with Sarah Michelle Gellar taking over her role as Kathryn Merteuil.
- 2018: The great seducer, Korean series of 32 episodes directed by Gang In and freely inspired by the novel, broadcast on the Korean channel MBC from 12/03/2018 to 01/05/2018, with Woo DoHwan , Joy ( Red Velvet ), Kim MinJae and Moon GaYoung
- 1834 : Dangerous Liaisons , drama of Ancelot and Xavier
- 1985 : The Dangerous Liaisons , by Christopher Hampton after Choderlos de Laclos , directed by Howard Davies , with Alan Rickman (Valmont) and Lindsay Duncan (Merteuil)
- 1987 : Quartett , by Heiner Müller , directed by Bob Wilson
- 1988 : Dangerous Liaisons by Christopher Hampton after Choderlos de Laclos , adaptation of Jean-Claude Brisville , directed by Gérard Vergez , Edouard VII Theater , 1989 : Théâtre des Célestins
- 2000 : The Dangerous Liaisons of Choderlos de Laclos , adaptation of Didier Sandre , with Ludmila Mikaël (Merteuil), Didier Sandre
- 2008 : Dangerous Liaisons , adaptation of Christopher Hampton , with Ben Daniels (Valmont) and Laura Linney (Merteuil) at the Roundabout Theater Company from April 11 to
- 2010 : Dangerous Liaisons , adaptation of Régis Mardon and Pascal-E. Luneau, at the Theater of Essaïon
- 2011 : Dangerous Liaisons , adaptation and staging by Joël Côté, Bob & Aglae Company, at the Theater of the Oppressed, Paris
- 2012 :
- The Dangerous Liaisons , adaptation and staging of John Malkovich , at the Theater of the WorkshopAn adaptation where social networks and SMS mark the return of writing in love exchanges 10 .
- Liaisons dangereuses , adaptation and staging by Joël Côté, Bob & Aglae Company, Confluences Theater, Queen Blanche Theater and Ménilmontant Theater, Paris
- Dangerous Liaisons , adapted by Christopher Hampton and directed by Jennifer Gagnon ThibaultWith Xavier Gagné (Valmont) and Geneviève Décarie (Merteuil), in collaboration with the theater troupe Les Treize, at the Hydro-Québec Amphitheater in Quebec City; an adaptation taking place at the heart of the 1950s 11 .
- 2015 :
- Liaisons dangereuses, adaptation and staging by Christine Letailleur , with Dominique Blanc (Merteuil) and Vincent Pérez (Valmont)
- Do not touch me , of Anne Théron , freely inspired by Dangerous Liaisons
- 2016 : The Dangerous Liaisons, adaptation and staging of Christopher Hampton , Donmar Warehouse (London), from December 11, 2015 to February 13, 2016With Dominic West (Valmont), Janet McTeer (Merteuil), Elaine Cassidy (Tourvel), Morfydd Clark (in) (Cecile), Edward Holcroft (Danceny), Una Stubbs ( M me Rosamond), Adjoa Andoh ( M me de Volanges).
- 2017 : Dangerous Liaisons, adaptation Antoine Gheerbrant and staged by Judith Molet, by the company Les Païens at Bouffon Theater, Paris.
- 1974 : Les Liaisons dangereuses , epistolary opera in two acts by Claude Prey ; creation at the Salle de l’Orangerie in Strasbourg on 5 February 1974, Aix 17, 22, 25 July 1980; musical direction Yves Prin , staged Pierre Barrat with Irène Jarsky (Merteuil), Peter Gottlieb (Valmont), Micaela Etcheverry (Tourvel), Jean-Pierre Chevalier (Danceny)
- 1991: Dangerous Liaisons , song by Frédéric Château released at Orlando / Carrère (9031 75324-7)
- 1992 Beyond My Control , song Mylène Farmer who sample the famous replica of John Malkovich (Valmont in the film adaptation of Stephen Frears) when he leaves M me de Tourvel.
- 2003 : Liaisons Tropicales , two-act musical comedy by Alfredo Arias , Gonzalo Demaria and René de Ceccatty ; creation in Buenos Aires.
- In 2010 , an adaptation of the novel in manga was published by Soleil in two volumes and whose author is Chiho Saitô 12 .
- ↑ ” The epistolary genre ” [ archive ] , on @ lalettre.com .
- ↑ ” libertinage ” [ archive ] , on @ lalettre.com .
- ↑ ” The games of viewpoints ” [ archive ] , on Magister.com .
- ↑ Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, Dangerous Liaisons , Paris, Editions Norph-Nop,, 282 p. , p. 280.
- ↑ a , b and c Pierre-Henri Simon , was Laclos Marxist? in Paris Review , December 1954.
- ↑ Lionel Souquet, ” Dangerous links: updating the epistolary novel libertine inBoquitas pintadas Manuel Puig and Historia calamitatum Diego Vecchio ” [ archive ] , on Paris-Sorbonne University (Workshops Seminar Latin America),followed by an interview with Diego Vecchio.
- ↑ ” The text and its links II ” [ archive ] , University Paris-Sorbonne , 2005-2006 .
- ↑ Article on this adaptation: Catriona Seth, “Gender and ‘gender’: the Dangerous Liaisons (1782) at the Mauvais genre (2000),” From a literary genre to another , Michele and Daniel Gueret Laferté-Mortier (dir. ), Rouen, PURH, 2008, p. 163-177.
- ↑ See gshow.globo.com . [ archive ]
- ↑ Presentation [ archive ] on spectacles.premiere.fr .
- ↑ See aufil.ulaval.ca . [ archive ]
- ↑ ” Vicomte de Valmont – Dangerous Liaisons (le) – Manga series ” [ archive] , on manga-news.com (accessed April 21, 2015 ) .