The three Musketeers

The Three Musketeers is the most famous novels of Alexandre Dumas Sr., originally published in serial in the newspaper Le Siècle from March to July 1844 , then published in volume in 1844 by Baudry Editions and reissued in 1846 at JB Fellens and LP Dufour with illustrations of Vivant Beaucé . It is the first part of the novelist trilogy called “Musketeers”, to which he gives his name, followed by Twenty years later ( 1845 ) and The Vicomte de Bragelonne ( 1847 ).

The novel tells the adventures of an impecunious Gascon of 18, d’Artagnan , who came to Paris to make a career in the body of the musketeers . He became friends with Athos , Porthos and Aramis , Musketeers of King Louis XIII . These four men will oppose the prime minister, Cardinal Richelieu and his agents, including the Count of Rochefort and the beautiful and mysterious Milady de Winter , to save the honor of the Queen of France Anne of Austria .

With his many fights and his romantic twists, The Three Musketeers is the typical example of the cape and sword novel and the success of the novel was such that Dumas adapted himself to the theater, and took over the four hero in the sequel of the trilogy. It has been the subject of many adaptations to film and television.


I. The Arrival in Paris

The first Monday of April 1625 , the village of Meung sees the young d’Artagnan , Cadet of Gascony en route to Paris to enter the company of the musketeers of King Louis XIII , to be humiliated by two unknown, which he ignores that they are agents of the Cardinal de Richelieu : Count de Rochefort and Milady de Winter . Rochefort steals the letter of recommendation written by his father for Mr. de Tréville, captain of the king’s musketeers. In Paris d’Artagnan still presents himself to M. de Treville, who can not promise him a place in his company. Leaving the hotel, while trying to catch up with Rochefort, D’Artagnan provokes, despite himself, the three musketeers in a duel, striking Athos ‘ s injured shoulder , taking his feet in the cloak of Porthos and picking up a compromising handkerchief from Aramis .

Duels are forbidden by Cardinal Richelieu. Too happy to catch the king’s musketeers in default, the cardinal’s guards intervened as d’Artagnan prepared to cross the iron. The musketeers refuse to surrender and d’Artagnan then ranks on the side of his former adversaries to lend a hand. After a tough fight in which the guards of the Cardinal are defeated, the four young people swear friendship. Received by Louis XIII, D’Artagnan is offered 40 pistoles from the king’s hand; he enters as a cadet in the care of M. des Essarts.

II. Ferrets of the Queen

The young man falls in love with the wife of his owner, Constance Bonacieux , the maid of Queen Anne of Austria , kidnapped by Rochefort . The young woman, rescued by D’Artagnan, reveals that Richelieu sought to compromise the queen revealing the friendly relationship that it maintains with the Duke of Buckingham , favorite of King Charles st of England . The queen, through Constance, sends d’Artagnan to London to recover the ferretswhich she imprudently offered to the Duke. Indeed, pushed by the cardinal, the king asked the queen to appear with these studs at the next Bal des Échevins. To be certain that the queen will not be able to obey, Richelieu instructed Milady de Winter to steal two of the ferrets that are in Buckingham’s possession. D’Artagnan leaves for Englandwith his companions and their lackeys. He leaves Porthos on the road, grappling with a drunkard, Aramis, wounded in the arm, and finally Athos, accused of being a counterfeiter. He finally rejoins England with a pass stolen from Count de Wardes (the lover of Milady). He sees the Duke of Buckingham agreeing to give him the studs and orders his personal jeweler to make two more ferrets to replace those stolen by Milady. D’Artagnan returns to Paris just in time to save the queen.

III. The headquarters of La Rochelle

Constance disappears, kidnapped by order of Richelieu who made sure of the neutrality of her husband. D’Artagnan goes in search of his friends before going to look for him. He finds Porthos ankle injury and his pride, Aramis ready to take orders (what it deters through a letter from me Chevreuse ) and finally Athos still locked in a cellar . They return to Paris where M. de Tréville teaches them that they must prepare to join the headquarters of La Rochelle. M. de Treville announced to D’Artagnan that the King would grant him a place among the musketeers after the siege. During his preparations, d’Artagnan met Milady and his brother-in-law, Lord de Winter, whom he provoked into a duel. Winner, d’Artagnan gives thanks to Lord de Winter, and in return he gets an interview with Milady, whom he is going to court. D’Artagnan gets his favors and discovers that his shoulder is branded with a fleur-de-lis , an infamous sign for him as a thief. Furious at being unmasked, Milady twice attempted to assassinate d’Artagnan.

In La Rochelle, Athos, Porthos and Aramis meet the cardinal at nightfall and agree to escort him to an inn. Intrigued, the musketeers linger and discover that he expects Milady. He charged her to kill the Duke of Buckingham, and in exchange he would give him a blank check to assassinate D’Artagnan without risking the Bastille. Athos recognizes in Milady his ex-wife, Anne de Breuil, and steals the white-seign.

IV. The End of Milady

To escape the surveillance of the Cardinal’s agents, the musketeers attempt a heroic action by going to defend an advanced bastion where they find themselves alone under the fire of the enemy with Grimaud, one of their lackeys; Once the Gascon is informed of the danger he runs, they decide to write to Lord de Winter to reveal the truth about Milady. Then they will ask the Queen, through me Chevreuse where Constance Bonacieux is. Their plans thus arrested in the greatest secrecy, the musketeers leave the bastion and return to the camp where they are welcomed as heroes.

Back in England, Milady is held captive by her brother-in-law. She seduces her jailer, John Felton , convinces him to murder the Duke of Buckingham, and returns to France . There, she takes refuge in the convent of the Carmelites of Bethune, where Constance also hides. Discovering the bonds between the young woman and D’Artagnan, she kills him by poisoning him at the very moment when D’Artagnan arrives with Athos, Porthos, and Aramis. Aided by Lord de Winter and the executioner of Lille – brother of a former victim of Milady – the musketeers seize the murderer in Armentièresand make him a mock trial. The verdict is unanimous: guilty, she deserves the death penalty and she is beheaded. The musketeers return to Paris, where d’Artagnan is promoted lieutenant of the musketeers by the cardinal with whom he is reconciled. He fights a duel with Rochefort and also ends up being reconciled with him. Athos left the company of musketeers to live in his native campaign, Porthos, to marry his procurator widow, and Aramis to become a priest among the lazarists .

Historical context

The historical context of the Three Musketeers is closely related to the literary context: the Memoirs of the Duke of La Rochefoucauld (first part: 1624-1642) are at the source of the case of the stalls directed by Alexandre Dumas. The author, a historian who called himself a “whistle-blower,” had worked assiduously with the Classical Memorialists, without whom it would be futile to attempt to clarify the historical context of Alexandre Dumas’s “historical” novels.

In 1625, Louis XIII reigns over France with his prime minister, Cardinal de Richelieu . His wife is Queen Anne of Austria . Too inexperienced to manage state affairs, the king has no choice but to rely on his prime minister, Cardinal Richelieu, whose political and strategic genius ensures the cohesion and security of the kingdom.

Dumas highlights the feeling of distrust and the clash of influence that constantly occupy both men. In the novel, they clash secretly through their personal guard. Dumas also exploited the hostility known between the queen and the cardinal to make it one of the mainsprings of the case of the ferrets.


Historical characters

  • The Cardinal Richelieu : insisting on the private side of the character as much as his public side, detailing its ability to weave intrigues to achieve his personal, but especially by making him antagonist imbued hero chivalrous values Dumas helped develop the black legend of a Machiavellian and devious autocrat.
  • Louis XIII : Dumas can not attach himself to this character whose qualities, sobriety, piety, chastity were not to seduce this amateur of good food and women. The king appears as a weak husband (and jealous), in the shadow of his minister. He admires, however, the heroism of the musketeers, which makes him very indulgent towards them. Moreover, he is not unhappy to let them take care of the cardinal’s pride by thrashing his guards.
  • The Duke of Buckingham : Alexander Dumas assumes the lover of the Queen of France Anne of Austria, and gives him the build of a romantic character, suffering from an impossible love.
  • Queen Anne of Austria : Dumas kept the historical figure the victim of a political marriage, under the harassment of the cardinal. It is about this period of the life of the queen where, having failed to give an heir to Louis XIII, she is going through a difficult period in her marriage. Dumas idealizes her beauty, her sense of honor, while lending her love feelings that make her both more touching and more human. Here she plays the role of the Queen of Chivalry, capable of inspiring heroic exploits to the brave.
  • M. de Treville, captain of the King’s Musketeers, Jean-Armand du Peyrer, Count of Treville ;
  • me Chevreuse ;
  • D’Artagnan: Charles de Batz of Castelmore d’Artagnan was thirteen years old in 1625, when Dumas placed the beginning of the novel. He would have been 15 years old at the time of the siege of La Rochelle , which seems hardly credible. Nevertheless his maternal uncle, Jean de Montesquiou d’Artagnan , teaches at the French Guards and appreciated the king, had been killed during the siege of La Rochelle in 1628. Charles de Batz having borrowed from the family of his mother the name of Artagnan for to serve in the Musketeers, it is possible that Dumas used the confusion to expand the biography of his hero. Confusion still maintained by the fact that d’Artagnan finished marshal of France in the Viscount of Bragelonne, unlike Charles de Batz who died in 1673 at the seat of Maastricht , but as his cousin Pierre de Montesquiou d’Artagnan .
  • Athos: Armand de Sillègue of Athos d’Autevielle who takes his name from the village of Athos-Aspis ;
  • Porthos: Isaac de Portau born in Pau ;
  • Aramis : based on Henri d’Aramitz , who was cousin of the Earl of Tréville also Béarnais;
  • The guards of the Cardinal;
  • The musketeers of the king;
  • John Felton , the murderer of Buckingham.

Fictional characters

  • Constance Bonacieux, wife of the bourgeois Bonacieux, the queen’s maid, courted by d’Artagnan; character of a young bourgeois borrowed from the theater;
Main article: Constance Bonacieux .
  • Rochefort, gentleman, agent of the cardinal;
Main article: Comte de Rochefort .
  • M. Bonacieux, a stereotype of the petty bourgeois who is greedy for profit, cowardly and jealous;
  • Milady (nee Anne de Breuil, also called Milady de Clarick and Milady de Winter), former wife of Athos, widow of the former Lord de Winter; she is the archetype of the femme fatale .
Main article: Milady de Winter .
  • Lord de Winter, brother-in-law of Milady; Gentleman’s character.
  • Planchet: valet D’Artagnan, resource man;
Main article: Planchet .
  • Carabiner: valet de Porthos, whose greed he shares;
  • Bazin, valet of Aramis, whom he tries in vain to incite to enter into religion;
  • Grimaud, the valet of Athos, is distinguished by his taciturnity;
  • Kitty: maid of Milady, then me Chevreuse love of D’Artagnan;
  • Jussac: officer of the guards of the cardinal: d’Artagnan wounds him in a duel during the battle which seals his friendship with Athos, Porthos and Aramis.

Sources of the novel

Headband from the newspaper Le Siècle dated March 14, 1844 announcing the beginning of the series to its readers.

The hero of the Three Musketeers is inspired by the historical figure of Charles de Batz d’Artagnan Castelmore regiment of Cadets de Gascogne of Louis XIII . His name is mentioned in the memoirs and correspondences of the time, notably at Madame de Sévigné’s . Dumas had as sources of M. d’Artagnan’s Memoirsof Gatien de Sandras Courtilz written in 1700 , 27 years after the death of D’Artagnan 2 . Dumas draws a lot of details, which he rewrites in a very personal style. So this passage of Courtilz

“My parents were so poor that they could give me a bidet of twenty-two francs, with ten crowns in my pocket, to make my trip. But if they did not give me much money, they gave me as a reward a good deal of advice. “

Memoirs of M. d’Artagnan , Chapter st

… becomes under the pen of Dumas:

“Such a beast was worth at least twenty pounds: it is true that the words of which the present had been accompanied were priceless. “

The Three Musketeers , Chapter st

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The project is originally an idea of Auguste Maquet , with whom Dumas collaborates in the writing of the novel 3 .

The memories of that time give him a windfall of intrigue, including the episode of the studs of the queen as for example La Rochefoucauld says in the first chapter of his memoirs 4 .


The original title was Athos, Porthos and Aramis , but on a proposal by Desnoyers, in charge of the soap opera in the Century (according to which this title evoked readers the three Parques ), to adopt The Three Musketeers , Dumas accepted this last title noting that its absurdity (as the heroes are four in number) contribute to the success of the work 5 .



The success of the novel was such that Dumas himself adapted it for the theater, and two other novels followed him, repeating the four main heroes to form the trilogy of the musketeers. This is Twenty years later , published in 1845 , and The Vicomte de Bragelonne released from 1847 to 1850 .

Life of the novel

The novel also enjoyed great success outside France and was translated into English in three different versions in 1846 . That of William Barrow still authoritative 6 .

The Three Musketeers inspired rapidly number of authors who invented them suites, new episodes, or pastichèrent the more or less verve 7 . A website has identified more than one hundred and eight . Even during Dumas’ lifetime, dramatic authors and novelists seized the musketeers. In 1845, the comedy Porthos in search of an equipment of Anicet Bourgeois and Dumanoir staged an episode of Twenty years after 9 . In 1858 appeared Les Amours de D’Artagnan , by Auguste Blanquet, who took advantage of the hiatus of twenty years between The Three Musketeers andTwenty years later to imagine the continuation of the adventures of D’Artagnan under the Fronde(1648-1653) 10 . With the death of Dumas, Albert Maurin tried to capitalize on the popularity of the still intact Gascon The True Memoirs of D’Artagnan (1874) fictionalized version banal memories Courtilz of Sandras 11 .

The infatuation with The Three Musketeers continues more than a century after the publication of Dumas’ novel, with for example the D’Artagnan in love with Roger Nimier 12 , adapted in 1970 for television by Yannick Andrei, or The Return of the Three Musketeers of a certain Nicolas Harin in 1997 13 . Recently, Martin Winckler has written a novel, Les Trois Médecins (2006), whose plot is traced back to that of Dumas’ novel and Gérard Delteil published Speculator ( 2010).), a modern remake in the form of a thriller, in which the musketeers have become agents of a security society and evolve in the world of finance. Delteil also meant it justice Milady and explains himself by criticizing the sexism of the Dumas novel in an afterword 14 .

If d’Artagnan proves to be the favorite of these adaptations, the other characters of the novel have also inspired several authors: in 1886, the Theater L’Ambigu gave The Son of Porthos , whose action takes place in the period before the revocation of the edict of Nantes and features the young and fiery Joel Breton, son of Porthos, faced with Machiavellian cunning Aramis, the only survivor musketeer 15 . In Milady, my love (1986), the author, Yak Rivais, embarrassed by some aspects of the novel become repugnant to modern sensibilities, for example the episode of Milady’s execution, rewrote the story with more than16 .

With The Three Musketeers , Dumas and Maquet managed to achieve the paradox of popularizing the historical novel by making it a cape and sword novel and giving the novel of action its nobility by drawing on history. He had created a new positive hero, the impecunious Gascon, still close to the picaro , but noble and heroic, fine and chivalrous blade while remaining human in his weaknesses: the irascibility of D’Artagnan, the vanity of Porthos, ambivalence from Aramis torn between Eros and Agapo, the melancholy and alcoholism of Athos prevent the musketeers from being “perfect” heroes as Raoul de Bragelonne will be, but these weaknesses are their literary strength. The young man, these matamores , Capitan and other Captain Fracasse of the Commedia dell’arte and the comic theater in general ( Pistol or Parolles at Shakespeare ) and the hero of the novels of chivalry. He began his career under the comical features of a young Don Quixote , and in a few chapters metamorphoses into a new Achilles . This is mid-comic character mid-heroic than found in Le Capitaine Fracasse by Theophile Gautier (1863), or Cyrano de Bergerac by Edmond Rostand (1897).

He had also popularized a type of narrative where duels, political intrigue, overlapping, abductions, dramatic and comical passages alternate. The formula will make the fortune of the novels-feuilletons where will excel authors like Paul Féval ( Le Bossu , 1857) or Michel Zévaco ( Pardaillan , 1905-1918). Paul Féval Jr. will also make a specialty of exploiting the rich veins invented by his predecessors with titles like D’Artagnan against Cyrano de Bergerac , D’Artagnan and Cyrano reconciled , or The Son of D’Artagnan .

But the posterity of the Three Musketeers , the “One for all! All for one ! “- apocryphal motto – 17 goes far beyond the scope of literature. For André Roussin , speaking to the members of the French Academy in 1980, it is “the myth of friendship between men who, under the double seal of loyalty and courage, become invincible” , and he adds”It’s a big myth for the youth of a country. In the time of the underground, we have seen how much suffering and sacrifices he has led thousands of young people, who have died sometimes in atrocious ways, for not having given away the names of their network mates. Many of them had perhaps read at twelve The Three Musketeers and had retained this reading, the sense of the sacred brotherhood ” 18 . And the academician then evokes the quartet of French tennis of the 1920s, Henri Cochet , Jacques Brugnon , Rene Lacoste and Jean Borotrawho, by his youth, embodies the friendship between his members and his apparent invincibility, an ideal so close to the heroes of Dumas that they are nicknamed The Four Musketeers .

In 1974, a major distributor, Intermarché , will also want to take advantage of this positive image by choosing a logo where appear the musketeers, supposed to embody “equality and the fight led by the sign for the defense of purchasing power. In war against the expensive life … ” 19 .


Cinematographic adaptations

  • 1903 : The Musketeers of the Queen , silent film by Georges Méliès
  • 1909 : The Three Musketeers ( I tre moschettieri ), Italian silent film by Mario Caserini
  • 1912 : The Three Musketeers , French silent film by André Calmettes and Henri Pouctal
  • 1921 : The Three Musketeers , French silent film in 12 episodes by Henri Diamant-Berger
  • 1921 : The Three Musketeers ( The Three Musketeers), an American silent film by Fred Niblo with Douglas Fairbanks
  • 1923 : The Narrow Musketeer , Max Linder’s French silent film ( parody )
  • 1932 : The Three Musketeers , Henri Diamant-Berger’s French film in two epochs
  • 1933 : The Three Musketeers ( The Three Musketeers ), an American film by Colbert Clark and Armand Schaefer
  • 1935 : The Three Musketeers ( The Three Musketeers ), an American film by Rowland V. Lee
  • 1939 : The Three Musicians ( The Three Musketeers or The Singing Musketeer ), American musical film by Allan Dwan with Don Ameche (D’Artagnan)
  • 1941 : The Three Musketeers ( Al-Foursan al-Thalâth ), Egyptian film of Togo Mizrahi
  • 1942 : The Three Musketeers , Miguel M. Delgado’s Mexican film .
  • 1948 : The Three Musketeers ( The Three Musketeers ), American film of George Sidney with Gene Kelly (D’Artagnan), Lana Turner (Milady de Winter), June Allyson (Constance Bonacieux), Vincent Price (Cardinal Richelieu), Van Heflin (Athos), Keenan Wynn (Planchet), John Sutton (Duke of Buckingham), Gig Young (Porthos), Robert Coote (Aramis), Angela Lansbury (Anne of Austria), Frank Morgan (Louis XIII), Reginald Owen(Mr. de Tréville) and Ian Keith (the count of Rochefort)
  • 1953 : The Three Musketeers , André Hunebelle’s French film with Georges Marchal (D’Artagnan), Bourvil (Planchet), Danielle Godet (Constance Bonacieux), Georges Chamarat (Mr. Bonacieux), Yvonne Sanson (Milady de Winter), Gino Cervi (Porthos), Jean Martinelli (Athos), Jacques François (Aramis), Louis Arbessier (Louis XIII), Renaud Mary (Cardinal Richelieu),
  • 1961 : The Three Musketeers , Bernard Borderie’s French film in two epochs with Gérard Barray (D’Artagnan), Mylène Demongeot (Milady de Winter), Georges Descrières (Athos), Bernard Woringer (Porthos), Jacques Toja(Aramis), Daniel Sorano (Cardinal de Richelieu) and Guy Delorme (Count of Rochefort)
  • 1973 : The Rangers defy the karatekas ( Tutti per uno … boot per tutti ), Bruno Corbucci’s Italian film : very fanciful adaptation that transposes the characters into the world of the spaghetti western
  • 1973 – 1974 : The Three Musketeers ( The Three Musketeers ) and The Four Musketeers ( The Revenge of Milady ), American film in two parts of Richard Lester with Michael York (D’Artagnan), Oliver Reed (Athos), Richard Chamberlain (Aramis), Frank Finlay (Porthos), Faye Dunaway (Milady), Raquel Welch (Constance Bonacieux), Geraldine Chaplin (Anne of Austria), Jean-Pierre Cassel (Louis XIII), Christopher Lee (Rochefort),Charlton Heston(Richelieu) – A third installment was made in 1989 : The Return of the Musketeers , freely adapted from the novel by Alexandre Dumas Twenty years later
  • 1974 – 1975 : Four Charlottes Musketeers and Charlots madness: Four of us Cardinal! , French film in two parts by André Hunebelle (parody)
  • 1989 : The Return of the Musketeers Richard Lester’s Franco-Anglo-Spanish film with Michael York (d’Artagnan), Oliver Reed (Athos), Frank Finlay (Porthos), Richard Chamberlain (Aramis), C. Thomas Howell (Raoul, Viscount de Bragelonne), Kim Cattrall (Justine De Winter), Geraldine Chaplin ( Anne of Austria, Queen of France ), Philippe Noiret (Cardinal Mazarin), Jean-Pierre Cassel (Cyrano de Bergerac), Christopher Lee (Rochefort), Roy Kinnear (Planchet)
  • 1993 : The Three Musketeers ( The Three Musketeers ), American film of Stephen Herek with Chris O’Donnell (D’Artagnan), Kiefer Sutherland (Athos), Oliver Platt (Porthos), Charlie Sheen (Aramis), Tim Curry (Cardinal de Richelieu) Rebecca De Mornay (Milady de Winter), Gabrielle Anwar (Anne of Austria), Hugh O’Conor (Louis XIII), Julie Delpy (Constance Bonacieux)
  • 1994 : The Daughter of D’Artagnan , French film by Bertrand Tavernier with Sophie Marceau , Philippe Noiret and Claude Rich (takes the characters from the novel, but is not adapted from a novel by Dumas).
  • 2001 : D’Artagnan ( The Musketeer ), an American film by Peter Hyams with Justin Chambers , Tim Roth and Catherine Deneuve (takes the characters from the novel in a different version of the original story).
  • 2011 : The Three Musketeers ( The Three Musketeers ), in 3D , the film Anglo – Franco – German of Paul WS Anderson with Logan Lerman (D’Artagnan), Matthew Macfadyen (Athos), Ray Stevenson (Porthos), Luke Evans(Aramis) , Milla Jovovich (Milady), Gabriella Wilde (Constance), Mads Mikkelsen (Rochefort), Christoph Waltz (Richelieu), Orlando Bloom (Buckingham), Juno Temple (Anne of Austria),Freddie Fox (Louis XIII).

Adaptations for television

  • 1959 : The Three Musketeers of Claude Barma , televised drama with Jean-Paul Belmondo in the role of D’Artagnan. Broadcast live on Christmas Day 1959
  • 1969 : D’Artagnan , Claude Barma, soap opera with Dominique Paturel (D’Artagnan)
  • 1978 : D’Artagnan and the Three Musketeers ( Д’Артаньян и три мушкетёра ), Russian telefilm by Georgy Youngvald-Khilkevich with Mikhail Boyarsky (D’Artagnan), Veniamin Smekhov (Athos), Valentin Smirnitsky(Porthos), Igor Starygin (Aramis ), Margarita Terekhova (Milady de Winter), Alisa Freindlich (Anne of Austria), Oleg Tabakov (Louis XIII), Alexander Trofimov (Cardinal Richelieu)
  • 2005 : D’Artagnan and the Three Musketeers of Pierre Aknine with Vincent Elbaz (D’Artagnan), Emmanuelle Béart (Milady) and Tchéky Karyo (Richelieu).
  • 2005 : Milady of Josée Dayan with Arielle Dombasle (Milady), Martin Lamotte (Richelieu) and Florent Pagny (D’Artagnan). Adaptation that follows the adventures of the novel, but according to Milady’s point of view
  • 2005 : Young Blades , American television series
  • 2014 : The Musketeers of Adrian Hodges  (en) with Tom Burke (Athos), Santiago Cabrera (Aramis), Peter Capaldi (Cardinal Richelieu), Howard Charles (Porthos), Alexandra Dowling (Anne of Austria), Ryan Gage (Louis XIII), Tamla Kari (Constance Bonacieux), Maimie McCoy (Milady), Luke Pasqualino (D’Artagnan), Hugo Speer (Captain of Tréville) and Marc Warren (the Count of Rochefort).
  • 2014 : The Three Musketeers (2014 TV series)  (en) , television series South Korean with Jung Yong-hwa and Yang Dong-geun .

Adaptations in cartoons and animated films

  • 1952 : Tom and Jerry’s mini-series episode 65 The Two Musketeers
  • 1973 : D’Artagnan the Intrepid (animated feature film directed by John Halas ).
  • 1983 : The Three Musketeers (animation series)
  • 1993 : Albert the fifth musketeer (animation series)
  • 1987 : Under the sign of the Musketeers (animation series)
  • 1995 : The Three Musketeers , cartoon from GoodTimes Home Video Corp.
  • 2004 : Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers , cartoon from Walt Disney Pictures
  • 2005 : The Three Musketeers – Film puppet of Janis Cimermanis
  • 2009 : Shin Sanjūshi ( Japanese puppet series )
  • 2009 : Barbie and the Three Musketeers

Adaptations in comics

  • Les Trois Mousquetaires is a cartoon series by Raoul Cauvin and Mazel ( Éditions Dupuis , Récréabull and Point Image ).
  • Les Trois Mousquetaires is a comic book by Michel Lacroix ( Éditions Fernand Nathan ).
  • The Three Musketeers is a cartoon series written by Henri Filippini and designed by Robert Hugues (Éditions Ange).
  • Les Trois Mousquetaires is a cartoon series written by Michel Dufranne , Jean-David Morvan and drawn by Ruben ( Éditions Delcourt ).
  • D’Artagnan is a cartoon series written by Courtilz de Sandras and drawn by Auguste Liquois (Éditions Prifo).
  • D’Artagnan: Diary of a cadet , script and drawing by Nicolas Juncker, Milan Publishing , label Treizeétrange , 2008.
  • Milady de Winter is a cartoon diptychwritten and drawn by Agnès Maupré (Ankama Publishing).
  • The Three Musketeers , collection “Teens”, Pearson, Turin, 2000 (simplified adaptation, in comics, intended for teenagers and young adults not French speaking, with CD audio and exercises) [2]  [ archive ] .

Adaptations in novels (tributes, suites, pastiches …)

  • 1914 : The son of D’Artagnan of Paul Féval son.
  • 1925 : D’Artagnan against Cyrano de Paul Feval son.
  • 1928 : D’Artagnan and Cyrano reconciled of Paul Feval son.
  • 1930 : The Old Age of Athos by Paul Féval son.
  • 1962 : D’Artagnan lovers or five years before of Roger Nimier , Gallimard .
  • 1993 : The Last Love of Aramis or the True Memories of the knight René d’Herblay , Jean-Paul Dufreigne, Grasset .
  • 1995 : Club Dumas of Arturo Pérez-Reverte , The paperback .
  • 2018 : The drunken novel by Isabelle Stibbe , Robert Laffont .

Theatrical adaptations

Alexandre Dumas himself adapted his novel for the theater in 1845 :

  • 1845 : The Musketeers after Twenty Years Later
  • 1849 : The Youth of the Musketeers after The Three Musketeers
  • 1861 : The prisoner of the Bastille, end of the musketeers after the episode of the Iron Mask in The Viscount of Bragelonne .

Then, among the many adaptations that followed:

  • 1959 : The Three Musketeers by Roger Planchon , Théâtre de l’Ambigu-Comique
  • 1971 : The Three Musketeers by Michel Berto , Carcassonne City Festival, Collioure Festival
  • 1977 : Die drei Musketiere by Jerome Savary , in Germany
  • 1978 : Fencing does not pay by Francis Perrin
  • 1982 : The Three Musketeers by Marcel Maréchal
  • 1999 : The Three Musketeers (reprise of Marcel Maréchal )
  • 2006 : The Three Musketeers by Marianne Serra and Thomas Condemine
  • 2008 : The Three Musketeers (cover of Marianne Serra and Thomas Condemine )
  • 2011 : Musketeer of Richelieu , Puy du Fou
  • 2012 : The Three Musketeers (the series) by Clara Hédouin, Jade Herbulot, Romain de Becdelièvre and the collective 49701
  • 2016 : The Three Musketeers , musical from September 29, 2016 in Paris.
  • 2016 : The Three Musketeers , directed by Carlo Boso, Montfavet, July 22.

Adaptations in ballet

  • 1980: The Three Musketeers , two-act ballet, choreographed by André Prokovsky with music by Giuseppe Verdi , established on 22 November 1980 by the Australian Ballet at (in) Palace Theater, Melbourne  (en)

Adaptations in board game

  • 2010: Musketeers of Roy , François Combe and Frédéric Henry ( Ystari Games )

Adaptations in musical

2016: The Three Musketeers , musical comedy .


  • Alexandre Dumas , The Three Musketeers (full text, read by Alain Carré ), Éditions Autrement dit , Mons, 2006, 20 compact discs (duration: 22 h 35 min), ( ISBN  2-87445-029-4 ) .

Notes and references


  1. ↑ Presentation of the novel in The Small Classics Larousse, Larousse, 2011, p.11  [ archive ]
  2. ↑ text available on Gallica  [ archive ]
  3. ↑ Albert Thibaudet, History of French literature, Haeres, 2012 [1]  [ archive ]
  4. ↑ See Memoirs of La Rochefoucauld
  5. ↑ Correspondence between Dumas and Desnoyers Dumas cited in a report in The Dartagnan February 29, 1868, reproduced in the great novels of Alexandre Dumas , I – The Musketeers: The Three Musketeers and Twenty years later , Robert Laffont, coll. Bouquins, 1991, pp. 1338-1339
  6. ↑ Oxford World’s Classics, 1999
  7. ↑ Suites and pastiche of the Three Musketeers in Russia  [ archive ]
  8. ↑ Introduction to the suites of the musketeers  [ archive ]
  9. ↑ sheet and extract the work  [ archive ]
  10. ↑ critical summary  [ archive ]
  11. ↑ Summary  [ archive ]
  12. ↑ Summary of D’Artagnan in love [ archive ]
  13. ^ “Suites and pastiches of Dumas in Russia”  [ archive ]
  14. ↑ The Three Doctors on the site of Martin Winckler  [ archive ]
  15. ↑ Drama Review , 1886  [ archive ]
  16. ↑ Summary of Milady my love [ archive ]
  17. ↑ It should be noted that the exact replica in the text of the novel is “All for one! One for all ! ” The Three Musketeers on Wiktionary However, it is most often quoted inaccurately and reversely. It is also the motto of the Swiss Confederation, evoking solidarity between the Swiss cantons.
  18. ↑ Andre Roussin, André Roussin response to the speech of Mr. Alain Decaux  [ archive ]
  19. ↑ History of the sign  [ archive ]

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